Hunger Games Task 4

The Hunger games ESSAY PLAN 4B3

Here is a copy of your essay plan, just in case you lose the one I printed for you.

Homework due next Monday 5th November:

3 analysis paragraphs using the PEAR structure

You will need at least two pieces of evidence for each paragraph. Make sure they are connected to the same POINT and THEME.

You all know how to contact me if you need any advice/assistance.

See section 4. on here for help on how to do that.

Good luck!

template for critical essay  Use this template to plan one paragraph

Template for critical essay analysis for multiple paragraphs  This one is much smaller but enables you to plan out 4 paragraphs (you don’t have to do four yet though 😉

For any of you that are still unsure about your camera angles and shots:

camera angles English report

Exemplar Essays


Psycho exemplar essay

The Others model essay

Here is a more complicated media paragraph. I dont expect one at this level though (or you should be at university!)

Ken Loach ‘Sweet Sixteen’

7. Your ideas on the film

I have looked at all the work you have generated in class and have chosen the useful information that will help you with your essay!

This is being worked on right now! There will be more of your work added soon.

Blue Hat

What is the genre of the film? Science-Fiction (Sci-Fi) Dystopian society (click on the link for more detail – remember we talked about it being the opposite to a Utopian society(paradise). As many of you pointed out there are other genres that are included such as action, drama, thriller but the above are the main ones.

What is happening in the plot? A fantasy world called Panem, where

What are the themes of the film? Survival, Friendship,

Red Hat

What emotions do you feel when you watch the film? Explain:

Sad – because you feel sorry for the dead and how they have to compete in the horrific Hunger Games.The techniques used help us to sympathise with the main characters. We feel very sad when Rue dies, not only does it activate our sadness and make us as an audience empathise with the characters, it makes the people from the capitol and districts empathise aswell. This gives them HOPE (see below in the mockingjay part -green hat for symbolism) and that is dangerous!

Full of suspense and on edge – This is because we don’t know what is going to happen. We feel on the edge of our seats at times as we are worried about the outcome. It makess the viewer/audience want to know what happens next.

Happy – Because they win in the end and Katniss gets to return to Prim and her Mum.

Guilt – because these people have no freedom whereas we have a say in how we live our lives.

Scared – because the techniques are so effective and pull us in to the narrative, so that, at times we feel as if it is happening to us.

White Hat

What film techniques are used to determine your reading of the film?

1. When Katniss is stung by a Tracker Jacker there is a POV (point of view shot) which is highlighted by the camera going all blurry and we, as a viewer get to experience things from her perspective (POV).  During this blurry sequence, the director uses a technique called Flashback where we experience the thoughts of Katniss through a dream-like sequence, suggesting she is hallucinating. This effect is further highlighted by the back-story. Here we find out a bit of background information to some of the confusing parts of Katniss’s family life:

1. Her cold relationship with her mother. When she is given 3 minutes to spend with her family, she is warm and nurturing with Prim but cold and indifferent with her Mother.

Katniss Everdeen: You can’t tune out again. Katniss’ Mother: I won’t. Katniss Everdeen: No, you can’t. Not like when dad died. I won’t be there anymore, you’re all she has. No matter what you feel, you have to be there for her. Do you understand? [Katniss’ mother nods with tears in her eyes]

When her father died, her mother ‘died inside’ and shut down to the needs of Prim and Katniss. Katniss had to take over the role of bread winner for the family and take on the role of mother to Prim. She is now concerned, not for herself, but for Prim’s safety and welfare.

2. We see a group of miners and all the faces are the same as the man in the photograph that we previously see in Katniss’s house. We then see the house explode which signifies or symbolises, not only the death of her father (who we can assume from this died from I have put the technique in white as they are the ‘facts’ used to determine our reading of the film.an explosian in the mine), but how that death blew apart her home life.


Extreme long shot (ELS) This camera shot is used during the opening scenes to show the abject poverty that the  people from the districts live in (this is shown from district 12 AND the district 11 who eventually begin to revolt against their unfair treatment as a result of Katniss bringing humanity to the games and giving them HOPE). We see the bleak and horrible setting. The colour is dreary and grey, the streets are mud baths, the houses are old and delapidated, the people are sad and miserable and wear what appear to be rags.

The riot scene in District 11

This also helps us to get a good idea where the main character Katniss comes from, so that we can understand her plight more.

Music: The music is a prominent technique throughout and is used to bring tension when needed. Non-diegetic (not in the movie, click for more clarification)(more will be added when you analyse music more closely! If I forget to add it, leave a comment).

Green Hat:

What new ideas do you think about when you watch the film? How does it relate to your prior knowledge of films or books that you have read? Think about the symbolism and what that suggests.

The ideas we CREATE from ‘reading’ a film is a unique experience and so I have put them in green.  Remember, although when we view a text it is a shared experience, our reactions to it may be quite different depending on the associations we make (how it connects with things we recognise from something we have previously watched or read) See the section on Symbolism

trying to give you different vocabulary to use so that you have a variety to use in your essays. Make sure you try and use different words in each paragraph. S

6.Summary and Themes

Below is a sample of your own work on the themes of the novel. I have also included one of your summarys that I have added a bit to


The Hunger Games is futuristic film set in the country of Panem, where each year  twelve districts must sacrifice a boy and girl to fight to their deaths in the yearly televised Hunger Games. Usually there can be only one winner, but, in special circumstances brought about by the main protagonist Katniss Everdeen, they changed it to two. The narrative focuses on the main character Katniss, from District Twelve, who tries fights against the odds (adversity) to return home to her family.


Inequality: In the Hunger Games  there is clear inequality between the districts, that are poor, and the Capitol that are rich. We first see this near the beginning when District twelve is having their boy and girl picked and they are all dressed in rags whereas the woman from the Capitol, Effie Trinkett, is dressed in expensive brightly coloured clothes. We see this again when Katniss is hunting for food to feed her family, as they have very little, whereas in the  Capitol there are huge buffets of food to eat.


Love: One theme that is used in the Hunger Games is love. Katniss tries her best not to get attached to people, but ironically, she ends up pretending to be in love so that she can get more sponsors. Another aspect of the love theme is when she volunteers to take her sister’s place when she is chosen as the tribute from District Twelve.

Peeta and Katniss fall in love – ah but do they really? or is it just a publicity stunt? That is common with our own celebrities who do so to gain press coverage and extra attention from fans looking for any pieces of information. The same is true of the ‘celebrities’ in the Hunger Games (the reality tv show in the film)

Power: Who has the power?

Another theme in the Hunger Games is power. The Capitol people have the most power as they have power to control the people in the districts. They act like the people in the districts as just characters in a show and not real people that feel like them.

Friendship: The bond between Katniss and Peeta allows them to work well as a team and both get home safely from the Hunger Games.

There is also a bond created between Rue from District Eleven and Katniss, as they both looked out for each other. Rue knew that Katniss was different from the blood thirsty tributes from Districts One and Two,  and the other less able ones, and knew that she could trust her.

Loyalty: Throughout the story, we see how Katniss works to help other competitors. Rue, from District Eleven, was scared and sought help from Katniss, who, out of respect for Rue and the people of the districts, conducted a ‘funeral’ for Rue, covering her in flowers and singing to her as she died. This became the catalyst (this means the incident that forced a change to happen) for the uprising that begins in District Eleven. How did this become the turning point in the way the Districts allowed the Capitol to treat them badly? It showed the games for what it was. Not a reality TV show, but the brutal killing of the people in the Districts who are exploited and oppressed by the Capitol people. She made them appear human, real people and not just characters in a game.

Survival: They have been set the task to survive, and we follow Katniss Everdeen as she tries her best to, in the cruel, torrid Hunger Games.

They have to fight for their lives by killing other tributes and learning to cope with the guilt that follows. They also have to find food and shelter to protect from the elements and to give them the strength to protect themselves against formidable, well trained opponents.

At first it is all about ‘survival of the fittest’ (Darwin’s theory of evolution). This is made more challenging, as the tributes from District One and Two are specially trained from an early age and volunteer to take part, as it is seen as an honour to take part and win (much the same as the Spartans who trained to fight). The other Tributes are like Gladiators that are forced to fight to death. Katniss tries to keep away from the ‘career tributes’ but is forced into their area by the game- makers, who are trying to keep the viewing public interested by throwing the people together in the hope that a bloodbath will ensue.

The film exposes how, with a little team work and common sense, you are able to be victorious in the race for survival.

May the odds be ever in your favour:

This theme is about chance and luck. For example: Prim Everdeen is entering The Reaping draw for the first time and only has her name in the draw once – unlike many others such as Gale who has his name in many times to get the extra food for his family.

This theme is also about the gambling that takes place before the games where they place odds on who they think is more likely to survive the Hunger Games.


Katniss has the courage to volunteer to take her sister Prim’s place when she is chosed as District Twelve’s tribute. She then remains strong and focused on her goal of returning home to her family. She promised Prim that she would win.

Katniss shows courage many times throughout the film. For example, her courage to shoot the arrow through the pig and make the gamemakers notice her (and gaining a high rating as a result!); she also has the courage to challenge the Capitol with her signal of respect after Rue’s death and the courage to take the berries at the end. This courage allows her to win the games (with Peeta) but it is also the reason why President Snow views her as a threat – she has given the districts too much HOPE and ‘a little hope is effective, alot is a dangerous thing’ (President Snow makes this comment to Seneca Crane, the head Game-maker, as a warning, as he can see how easily the districts can turn against the Capitol if they hope and believe they can make a change. Katniss already has made a change by humanising the games. This means that she has made them seem like real people and not just part of a tv show.


Control is a main theme in the Hunger Games as the main point of the Hunger Games is for the Capitol people (President Snow being the main enforcer of this control) to exert their power over the people of the districts.

Well done all of you! Keep up the good work 🙂

5. Analysing the film as a whole

Using Edward De Bono’s  Six Thinking Caps to analyse the

 film ‘The Hunger Games’

Task three:  Below is a table where the Six Thinking Hats have been used to structure the analysis of  ‘The Hunger Games’ as a whole. . In pairs, discuss each area and fill in the table.   Word doc of table: Hunger Games film analysis using Thinking Hats task 3

Thinking Hat Colour Question Answers
Blue Hat  What is the genre of the film?   What is happening in the plot? What are the themes?
Red Hat What emotions do you feel when you watch the film? Explain how the   film makes you feel.
White Hat What film techniques are used to determine your  reading of the scene? Give some examples   (make sure you explain where the technique is used in the film)
Green Hat What new ideas do you think about when you watch the film?How does it   relate to your prior knowledge of films or books that you have read? Think   about the symbolism and what that suggests.
Yellow Hat What are the positive aspects of the film? What is successful?
Black Hat What are the weak points of the film?What could the director have done differently?

4. A Critical Evaluation of Media


When you write critical essays on literature ( prose (short stories and novels), plays and poetry), you take your evidence from the whole text not just the dialogue (talking). For example: in plays two levels of language are used:

1. The words spoken by the characters in the play

2. The stage directions.

In the play called ‘Paper Tigers’  by Steve Barlow and Steve Skidmore.         

Scene 1                                                                       

Inside the back room of the paper shop. Mr Ali is checking through some magazines and numbering them. He puts some of the magazines into the paper round shoulder bags. He hums to himself.

Gareth enters the room. He looks around nervously.

Gareth  Er…hello

 Mr Ali turns quickly and stares at Gareth.

Gareth  Er…there was no one in the shop, and I heard you hummin’ in here…

Mr Ali  I didn’t hear the bell.

Gareth  Perhaps it’s not working.

Mr Ali  (relaxing a little) Perhaps not. What can I do for you?

Gareth You are Mr Ali, aren’t you?

Mr Ali   I am. And you?

Gareth (confusedly) No, I’m not Mr Ali…oh I see! Sorry! I’m Gareth. Gareth Davies. I’ve come about the job. On the window outside. The paper round job

I have written the stage directions in pink and the dialogue in blue so you can clearly see them. You could use both the dialogue and the stage directions in your answer.

For example: In the stage directions, the playwrights (Barlow and Skidmore if you prefer), show how shy Gareth is about asking for a job when he ‘looks around nervously’ upon entering  the papershop. This is further expemplified when Mr Ali says ‘I am. And you?’ and Gareth ‘confusedly’ thinks Mr Ali is asking him if he too is Mr Ali. Both emphasise how anxious Gareth is about doing something he has not experienced before.


For movies it is exactly the same. You have to use the whole of the text (and films are a text in the same way literature is). This means you have to write about cinematography (camera angles, shots and movement), mise-en-scene (see this post for a breakdown of the elements), sound (diegetic or non-diegetic) and symbolism amongst others.


Using your notes write an introduction in which you:

  • Mention the titledirector/writer, year of release, where it  was set.
  • Clarify what the genre is (dystopian)
  • Name and briefly describe the main protagonist in a single sentence.
  • Provide a plot summary (3-4 lines).
  • Refer to the question

Do not write openings such as ‘I am going to talk about…’

Always write in the third person in a CEL

EXAMPLE: ‘The director, Gary Ross, uses many film techniques to convey the themes of…’(only write the themes in the introduction that you are analysing in your essay). ‘The Hunger Games’ is an American science fiction film set in the futuristic, dystopian society of Panem.

Once you have completed your introduction you will move on to do at least five analysis paragraphs.

An example of a CEM introduction using the film ‘Nineteen Eighty Four’ (1984)

Tip: It is better to write all numbers  in full such as District Twelve as it looks better in an essay.

‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ is a British dystopian film released in 1984. It was written and directed by Michael Radford, based upon George Orwell’s novel of the same name. The film follows the life of Winston Smith in Oceania, a country run by a totalitarian government. In dystopian ‘Nineteen-Eighty-Four’, Winston Smith endures a squalid existence in the totalitarian superstate of Oceania under the constant surveillance of the Thought Police. The story takes place in London the capital city of the territory Airstrip One (formerly Britain). Winston works for the Ministry of Truth, rewriting history in accordance with the dictates of the party and its extreme figurehead Big Brother. Using key film techniques such as: cinematography, mise-en-scene and symbolism, this essay will explore the themes of surveillance, sexual repression and oppression.

Title, genre,year of releasewriter/director/adaptation, summary (including the information required to give a background to your essay 3-4 lines ONLY), refer to question and say what themes and techniques you are going to look at.

These are the SIX  things you HAVE to include in your introduction.

Analysis paragraphs:

You may have used the PEE structure before in your analysis of literature, however, I prefer to use PEAR which is an acronym for POINT, EVIDENCE, ANALYSIS and REFER BACK, because it includes a reminder that each paragraph must refer back to the original question. Your analysis in each paragraph has to be answering the same question all the way through. To ensure that the marker knows you are answering the question you have to mention the key words (or words that mean the same) of the question in the POINT and REFER BACK stages of your paragraph.

Below is an example of how to use the PEAR structure. Each element of the structure is colour coded to make it more distinguishable. To make it easier for you, I have included a template for you to structure your paragraph:

Template for critical essay using the PEAR structure

Template for critical essay analysis for multiple paragraphs. Once you have mastered the structure, you can use this template to structure all of the analysis paragraphs of your essay



This is your topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. In the topic sentence you must introduce the main idea of the paragraph. For a critical essay that would be the point you are about to make to answer the question (each paragraph is about answering the same question). It must contain the technique you are looking at (for example  Aerial shot) and how this technique  (highlights their vulnerability) emphasises the theme (to emphasise the theme of oppression).

Example: In ‘The Hunger Games’ the director employs sound to convey (try to use different words for each topic sentence)  the theme of oppression to the audience. As the children walk  towards ‘The Reaping’, there is an ominous, non-diegetic, sound in the background that echoes the sound of a bell tolling. The sound of a bell tolling is symbolic of death and is often heard when someone has died. The director uses an aerial shot showing the children walking  to further convey the theme of oppression. An aerial shot makes the character look small therefore it makes them appear vulnerable. The ominous sound coupled with the aerial shot of the children, makes them appear like animals being herded which echoes the saying  ‘lambs to the slaughter’. This treatment of the children of District 12, where they are forced to attend The Reaping so that  two can be chosen for The Hunger Games, reinforces the theme of oppression as it highlights their  inhumane treatment by the Capitol. 


The evidence has to be taken directly from the text. It is not enough just to make a point, you have to prove it! For literature you would just take the words (either dialogue or discription) and put them inside quotation marks, like this: ‘I am. And you?’. You can also do this in film, however, it is not enough! For film you have to use film language (cinematography, mise-en-scene, sound, dialogue and symbolism). The examples I have given will show you how to do this.


You have to take that evidence one step further! You have to explain exactly what effect it is having.

What the connotations are  (this is a fancy word that means the emotional attachment of the word to you. For example:

Denotation is the definition of a word.  For example, a cat is a furry animal with four legs and a tail.
The connotation is what you think of when you hear that word.  For example, some people think of how cute cats are and their first cats, etc…some people hate cats, and that’s what they think of when they hear the word.  Here’s another example: thin and scrawny.  Which one has the more positive connotation?  Thin.  Scrawny sounds like a malnourished and ugly thing to be, but thin sounds attractive and positive.

Look at my analysis of ‘Happy Hunger Games’ (that Effie and President Snow use in the film – and Katniss and Gale make fun of)

‘Welcome, welcome, welcome…Happy Hunger Games!’ This echoes the saying ‘Happy Holidays’ (that Americans say a lot!). It is a complete clash of words (or oxymoron, if you want the correct term) as Happy mean to be joyful whilst the and the Hunger Games mean pain, death and suffering.

An oxymoron is when two words, that clash or contrast in meaning, are next to each other like black ice, red snow or cruel kindness.


Once you have made your POINT , given EVIDENCE and shown what that means through your ANALYSIS of that evidence, you must  REFER BACK to the question. How else is the marker to know that you are answering the question and not just showing your knowledge of the text?

Example: This treatment of the children of District 12, where they are forced to attend The Reaping so that two can be chosen for The Hunger Games, reinforces the theme of oppression as it highlights their  inhumane treatment by the Capitol.

This is a word doc that gives further examples of topic sentences and different verbs that can be used. verb-for-topic-sentences

An example of the PEAR structure used to analyse ‘Nineteen Eighty Four’

Example paragraph 1

From this clip of the film

In Nineteen-Eighty-Four, the government, called The Party, uses propaganda to control the people and keep them oppressed. The Party pretends that Oceania is continually fighting a war to keep the people focused on whether they are winning or losing, rather than how terrible their living conditions are. The director highlights the use of propaganda by showing a telescreen broadcast where a close-up shot of a newsreader

(which could be considered an extreme close-up since the top and bottom of his head is cut off) talking about the atrocities of war ‘They have attacked an unarmed village with rocket bombs…and murdered defenseless, innocent…and peaceful citizens of Oceania.This is no longer war. This is cold-blooded murder. Until now, the war has been conducted with honour…and bravery…with the ideals of truth and justice,in the best traditions of mankind…until this moment. Brothers and sisters…’The use of the words ‘innocent’, ‘unarmed’,and ‘defenseless’ all have connotations of the upright, virtuous  people who are brutally murdered by a foreign enemy of Oceania. The Party uses this as a method of controlling the society and keeping them oppressed. They have to constantly worry about the external threat from a foreign nation which prevents them from thinking about how they are being treated as a society. It is The Party who are causing the bombings, which occur when the people need reminding that The Party looking after and protect them. Also, the mannerisms of the newsreader appear sinister, he is speaking in an indignant angry tone of voice, but the words ‘ideals of truth and justice’ clash with the way the people in Oceania are treated by The Party. There is no truth or justice in society since the Party decides everything and rewrites history. The newsreaders’ expression becomes even more sinister and angry as towards the end he begins to chant ‘Death! Death!’ which echoes what will happen to all those who disobey the authority of The Party and signifies the ultimate oppression suffered by the people.

Usually, you will have to include more than one piece of evidence that is related to the same point. I have shown here how you can do so.


Once you have completed your introduction and analysis paragraphs, it is important that you write a conclusion to your critical essay.

This is the final paragraph where you discuss how the director, Gary Ross, uses various film techniques to convey the themes in the film ‘The Hunger Games’ (list what techniques you have used in your essay overall. For example: sound, setting, camera angles/shots/movement, editing, colour etc).

The conclusion repeats some of the information from the introduction such as: the key words of the task, the director’s name, the title of the film and then go on to discuss how the film as a whole, conveys the themes you have discussed in your essay. You summarise your main arguments and say how they, as a whole, answer your question.


You can use dialogue from the film as evidence but it is important that you use other techniques as well.

This is a good website, which I think, has all the dialogue from the film 🙂

From the opening section of the film:

‘From the treaty of the treason: In penance for their uprising, each district shall offer up a male and female between the ages of 12 and 18 at a public “Reaping.” These Tributes shall be delivered to the custody of the Capitol. And then transferred to a public arena where they will Fight to the Death until a lone victor remains. Henceforth and forevermore this pageant shall be known as The Hunger Games.’ ….

Please, either leave a comment, or see me at school if any of this is confusing.

3. Mise-en-scene

Mise-en-scene is the composition of what is seen on screen.  Everything a director lets us see on screen is important, it’s there for a reason.

When looking at mise-en-scene you must look at:

• props
• Costume
• positioning
•camera angles
• lighting
• facial expression
Extract from above link:

The two elements of film form essential to make this adaptation work are mise-en-scene (the overall look and feel of a film) that lives up to the exotic locations in the novel and a plot that is able to explain hundreds of pages of a narrative told from the first-person account of Katniss. “The Hunger Games” gets one of them right. The mise-en-scene more than lives up to expectations, utilizing color, set design and costumes to the fullest extent. Screenplay writers Gary Ross, Suzanne Collins and Billy Ray did their best to fit everything from the novel into a little over two hours, but unless you’ve read the book you might find yourself a bit confused at times.

There are three main locations integral to the story — the coal mining district where Katniss resides; The Capitol, filled with the rich and powerful; and the arena that hosts the Hunger Games. District 12 is decorated in despair, dressed in flat shades of blue and gray. The Capitol is a sea of vibrant colors and exorbitant architecture. The wooded outdoor arena where the games are held are deep hues of green and brown. They clearly delineate the stark contrast between the haves of The Capitol and have-nots in the districts. Ross takes it a step further, using a somewhat distracting cinematography style in District 12 that features shaky handheld camera work and mostly short takes and quick cuts. I get that he was trying to build tension felt by the district residents, but I think it serves as more of a distraction.

How do the people from the districts look compared  to the people from the capitol?


COLOUR  is an important aspect of Mise-en-scene

film techniques lesson 3 This ppt is part of the lesson that we were going to do but technology failed and we looked at the mise-en-scene in ‘The Woman in Black’ instead.

Look at the difference of colour used in the movie Twilight. Yes I know most of you probably hate it but it does have a useful use of colour!How does colour help convey the different moods in the movie?

Red conveys a sense of danger

The yellow tones convey a sense of homely warmth.


The white gives an impression of purity and innocence.


The blue tone gives a sense of coldness to the scene.


Black gives an impression of evil.

If black suggest evil and white suggests innocence, what does this picture suggest?

2. Editing

Film Editing

Editing is one of the most important aspects of filming. Click on the link to understand why. Fast and slow editing . This clip also shows how a single shot, without any editing, can be very boring.

The film editor works with the raw footage  selecting shots and combining them into sequences to create a finished motion picture. Before digital cameras, this used to be done with film that had to be cut and then joined together. This meant that editing was both expensive, and time consuming. Digital cameras have not only brought about a reduction in cost, but allowed amateurs to produce film with little experience in the production industry.


The very first films in the late 1800s, made by the Lumiere Bros. and Thomas Edison among others, were single-shot actualities: a train pulling into a station, people leaving a factory, ladies walking down the street. The camera was locked in place. It recorded, in its entirety, the “event” taking place. It was the magic of capturing movement that captivated audiences. Editing was originally called “cutting,” as it actually was the cutting together of two pieces of film. “Cutters” held the strips of film up to the light and cut them with scissors, cementing the two pieces together at the desired point.

It was no coincidence that several early filmmakers performed as magicians. The jump cut, a deliberate mismatching of two scenes, evolved into the first “special effect” of movies and was probably discovered by accident. Within the same scene, an actor could be made to “disappear” by stopping the camera, removing the actor, and resuming the scene without moving the camera. George Méliès, a Parisian magician, produced dozens of elaborate “trick” films using this effect as one of his primary marvels. Click here for more on this topic


(Gif images click on them)


At the beginning of ‘The Hunger Games’ there is a sudden jump cut. Seneca Crane is being interviewed by Caesar Flickerman in the build up to the 75th Hunger Games. Caesar asks Seneca the question: ‘What defines your personal signature?

The scene suddenly cuts to Prim screaming in District 12 and then being comforted by her sister Katniss. What does this sudden jump cut do to the audience? And what is the director saying by using a jump cut in this way?

THE TERMINOLOGY (what things are called!)

Film editing terminolgy from this website

Some of the terminology that a film editor uses includes:
Close-up (CU): A shot showing a detail only (ex., face only or hands only).
Cross-cutting: Cutting back and forth between two or more events or actions that are taking place at the same time but in different places. Cross-cutting is used to build suspense or to show how different pieces of the action are related.
Cut: An abrupt transition from one shot to another.
Cutaways: A cut away from the primary subject to something the filmmaker has decided is equally or more relevant at that time. Often cutaways consist of shots showing the reaction of one character to another. This is often used to compress time in what appears to be a seamless manner.
Dissolve: An overlapping transition between scenes where one image fades out as another fades in. Editors often use this to indicate a change in time and/or location.
Establishing Shot: A shot, usually taken from a distance, which establishes for the viewer where the action is to occur and the spatial relationship of the characters and their setting.
Extreme Close-Up (ECU): A detail of a close-up (eyes or mouth only, etc.). Fade In: A shot that starts in darkness and gradually lightens to full exposure.
Fade Out: A shot that starts at full exposure and gradually fades to black.
Freeze-Frame: At a chosen point in a scene, a particular frame is printed repeatedly, given the effect of halting or “freezing” the action.
Jump Cut: A cut where two spliced shots do not match in terms of time or place. A jump cut gives the effect that the camera is literally jumping around.
Long Shot (LS): A shot taken at a considerable distance from the subject. A long shot of a person is one in which the entire body is in frame.
Medium Shot (MS): A shot framing a subject at a medium range, usually a shot from the waist up.
Reverse cutting: A technique alternating over-the-shoulder shots showing different characters speaking. This is generally used in conversation scenes.
Sequence Shot: An entire scene or sequence that is one continuous camera shot. There is no editing.


In the editing process, the editor does not usually attempt to create an exact record of what happened as viewed through the eyes of one character. Rather, the editor—in collaboration with the director and in keeping with the vision of the writer—must “translate” the events of each scene into the most effective images, placing each one in the order and length most appropriate to telling the story. Timing is indeed everything for the editor.

One approach to editing is continuity. Continuity editing generally presents the action in a logical, chronological sequence. Even though the time and space of a sequence may be manipulated, it has the appearance of “real” time to the viewer. A long shot of a person sitting down is “matched” to a close-up of the person sitting down into the frame. In essence, the editor is focusing in on the scene in much the same manner as the human eye—jumping from place to place, farther or closer. In actuality, the action appears more natural if two or three frames of film are deleted by the editor at the splice. Click here for more on this topic

1. Hello 4th years

This blog is to give you additional information to support your preparation for your critical essay on ‘The Hunger Games’. I will post the work we do in class as and when we do it.

We have already watched the movie in class but it is a good idea, if possible,  for you to get your own copy of the movie. Then you can use the techniques we learn in class to enhance your knowledge of the text. Get a closer look at the opening .This is a good website that has lots of information on the film.

Look at the Hob, District 12’s illegal market. In the film we see old radios and buttons. What would the people from the Capitol think about these objects? Look at the mise-en-scene:colour, setting, mannerism, props…how do they compare to the mise-en-scene in the Capitol?

What can we tell about the treatment of the people from District 12 by looking at the facial features, actions and mannerisms of people like this woman from the Hob?

What impression does this aerial shot convey?

What impression do we get from the people that live in The Seam, where Katniss lives? How are they treated differently to the people in The Capitol?

What does this symbolise?

Look at the scenery in The Seam. What impression does it give us?

What impression do we get from The Reaping? How does this compare to other historical figures such Hitler’s regime, the communist regime and other oppressive societies? Who do the Peace Keepers remind you of?